FREDROWSKIE RUDKI AND BEŃKOWA WISZNIA
Author : Artur Ziaja
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In the middle of the road with Sambora to Lviv – approximately on the thirty-mile lodge-lie Rudki: sześciotysięczne, sleepy, where attentive and sensitive to the archaic atmosphere Wanderer, he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location, a seemingly uninteresting and not distinguished by anything special, After studying the wider reveals intriguing detail. It Turns Out […]
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In the middle of the road with Sambora to Lviv – approximately on the thirty-mile lodge-lie Rudki: sześciotysięczne, sleepy, where attentive and sensitive to the archaic atmosphere Wanderer, he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location
The geographical location of the
Their geographical location, a seemingly uninteresting and not distinguished by anything special, After studying the wider reveals intriguing detail. It turns out, in fact,, that stream Wiszenka with your area of those in the village of the same name, situated a few kilometres south of Mościsk, After receipt of the village Wistowice in the boundaries of Rudek splits into two bundle, one turns to the North and after opłynięciu Beńkowej Vyshnia – already under the name Vyshnia – you aspire toward the border with Poland, which exceeds the near the village and its features immediately afterwards Kalników water Sanowi these gains not far from Radymna, as one of his major right tributaries. In turn, the second, the smaller the Spike, Returns to the South to Nowosiółkom where in the form of supply adopted Welcoming the watercourse named the total and already much significant in sizes tends toward the nearby Dniestrowi.
The application of the above is the, that water from the divine design administrative borders Rudek flow into two seas, which means, the town is located on the extreme even provide high accuracy on the wododziale continental Boreal Baltic-Black Sea: the catchment boundary M. Black, M. The Baltic Sea. On a side note you may want to add, that a similar situation occurs in the run-up to Lviv. Native Lviv citizens have even with a certain degree of exaggeration to emphasize, that water from the presbytery of the Church of St.. Elizabeth flows through the river Pełtew to M. The Baltic Sea, from the porch and through the Wereszycę to M. Black.
Moreover, on the basis of these facts can be tempted to make very bold in its pronunciation of the conclusions, namely, that in the area there is a hydrographic bifurcation phenomenon very rare Rudek, This is a split of a watercourse, which – by the existence of this phenomenon – becomes a sui generis hyphen between river basins or as in this case, the watersheds of the seas!!! Bifurkująca in Rudkach Wiszenka-it sounds so incredibly and sensational, that musing on this-as I'm not a professional hydrologiem – I've included a working formula hypothesis, not a firm fact, I strongly encourage professionals to explore this problem.
Original geographical Rudek corresponds with an interesting history of the settlement and its significance for Polish culture. Rudki, in fact, for a long, a period of 200 years old (1742 – 1939) remained in the possession of the Kievan Rus ' of the noble Fredrów, from which derived an outstanding Polish playwright Aleksander Fredro memuarysta and.
Rudki were founded at the end of the 14th century. At the time of a site they were wide-chutorem, the neighboring village Beńkowej Vyshnia. In the same period appeared in Rudkach parish – Catholic Diocese: Przemyśl, consecrated ok. he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location. One of the heirs of Beńkowej Vyshnia named Sargent, He founded for the newly formed parish church, he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location. The Roman Catholic Church, the nature of the temple restored Archbishop of Lviv Dymitr Solikowski ok. year 1606. In 1645 He has been on the site but city Rudki German law were only in the middle of the 18 the age of. In 1728 y. Michael Urbanic with Urbanski, cześnik zhydachiv, erected in place of the wooden church turned out to be a brick, dedicated in 1741 y. Rudecka temple dedicated to Ecstatic Najświętszej Marii Panny is a large sacral. It has three aisles and can accommodate almost 2 thousands of people.
In 1742 Rudki passed into the hands of Fredrów, redeemed from Urbańskich. The second "fredrowskim" heir Rudek was Jacek Fredro, count, Bończa coat of arms, father Aleksander Fredro. he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location, What has contributed to some of the economic revival of the city.
Between 80 -These 19 century lived in the small town of ok. 2700 residents, in this ok. 1400 The Jews, 1000 The poles and 300 Ukrainians. During this time Rudkach, In addition to the already mentioned the Roman Catholic Uniate Church-work-filialna to the Church of the parish in Beńkowej as well as Vyshnia synagogue, District Office, District Court, czteroklasowa school, Post Office and Telegraph and the School District Of Rudeckiego. In austro- he will find relics of the atmosphere of the East Galician shtetl. Geographic location Their geographic location. Here, After years of Napoleonic wars is soldiering and wandering, returned playwright Aleksander Fredro, which the right to, Master of humor and sarcasm, finishing: soldiers ' Association chapter in your life, wrote: Napoleon on Elba, and I straight to Rudek.
In 1836 year in Rudkach was born – known in the 19 the age of, now largely forgotten – Polish writer Walery Łoziński, the author of "the magic House", and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna – an expert in classical literature and ancient art historian.
After 17 September 1939 the city was incorporated into the USSR. After the attack of Germany on USSR, probably 26 June 1941, officers of the NKVD murdered in prison in Rudkach staying there customers, abandoning the corpse in the nearby Bois de. Was found nine bodies, from which I was able to identify four. They were mostly arrested after 22 June representatives of the local intelligence. Part of the prisoners managed to escape, When the NKVD in disarray has left the prison shortly after the attack, German. Shortly thereafter, however, the enkawudziści returned shortly and made numerous atrocities on the local population. German sources estimated the number of victims of the NKVD in Rudkach and the nearby Komarno for about two hundred people. Most of these victims were people of Ukrainian nationality, among them were also the poles.
Church in Rudkach
It's worth spending a little more attention rudeckiemu Church. This is undoubtedly the most historical value object-Rudkach art. The Church was famous for its miracles, the icon of the mother of God, coming from the village of Podolia Żeleźnica, which 1612 y. during the invasion of Tatar czambułu was destroyed. After escaping the Mongols, in the rubble of a country Church, found undamaged an image of the Virgin Mary, painted on the Linden wood. According to the legend, uwożący icon with the Podillya George on Curyłło — settlement —, After arriving in Rudek got stuck here for good, as the horses pulling a car would not move on. Curyłło found, that God's will is that the image has remained in Rudkach. He offered him to local church (still drewnianemu), and saved from conflagration icon soon began strength miracles, venerated by both Catholics and Orthodox and Greek Catholics had been forcibly, What zaświadczały many offerings in this most valuable, i.e.. the Golden lamp offered by the Polish King Jan Kazimierz.
Day 2 and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna. and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna. Famous for its miracles Marian icon has been secretly exported to the Roman Seminary – in Przemyśl. and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna. and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna. In 1968 the year the image was transferred to the Church in Jasieniu, near Ustrzyk the bottom to create a centre of pilgrimage in the Bieszczady Mountains. Enthronement was presided over by Cardinal Karol Wojtyła. On the night of 7 at 8 and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna.
and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna, whom 2 and in 1891, a Polish scientist and professor at the University of Poznań, Mieczysław Ruxerna. Day 2 July 2003, the parish church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was proclaimed the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Rudecka.
Aleksander Fredro and Beńkowa Wisznia
As already mentioned, Aleksander Fredro after Napoleonic trips followed to Rudek, and more specifically to the village of Wisznia, Beńkowa 4 kilometers to the North of the city. Currently Beńkowa is located within the administrative borders of the Trzebnica County, formerly, however, it was a separate settlement, native to Rudek, that originally formed the village. The village was known mainly from the, that, in the 1672 y. After breaking the exploitation of Tatar in the run-up to Komarna, Jan III Sobieski delivered with jasyru on beńkowskich this park ok. 44 thousands of brańców.
Parents Aleksander Fredro, Jacek and Marianna Fredrowa-to Beńkowej Manor in brought Vyshnia 1797 year, When the future playwright had 4 years. Since then, Beńkowa has become Fredrów residence Wisznia, where he spent his childhood also Alexander. Here he, never attending public schools, educated by the rented of governesses. Here, too, survived the biggest trauma of his childhood, This is the death of his mother in a fire-waiting, in January 1806 year. After her death, together with his father moved for a time to Lviv. When the Napoleonic campaign of Aleksander Fredro by ok. 30 years farmed in Beńkowej Vyshnia, building in 1835 neo-Renaissance palace, a large park surrounded by, existing to this day, now renewed by the Polish Ministry of culture and national heritage within the framework of the programme "protection of Polish cultural heritage abroad". In 1846 by Aleksander Fredro and his wife lived in purchased in Lviv Manor, However, still frequented the Vyshnia Beńkowej a frequent visitor. After the death of the writer 1876 year, his embalmed corpses were interred in rudeckiej Temple, which vault over the years has moved in a kind of Pantheon noble family Fredrów.
Op-Ed “The story of the Tomb Fredro”
In 1934 year in Krakow "Illustrated was published as a daily" published an op-ed titled "history of the grave" by Aleksander Fredro. Its author, Stefan Niwiński wrote in it, inter alia,: "Even today, you can through the glass in a coffin to know well preserved features Aleksander Fredro. So she sleeps sleep century from 15 July 1876 year, but the current neglect of the crypt, in which patches of plaster fly with moisture on the head, that threatens to delay these will be a similar fate, as the son of John Alexander, in which coffin you will see the victory of moisture on balsamowaniem. We have to do something to protect those corpses. As it is currently under the ściskającym scandal blowjob, So whereas there Rudkach all the conditions of neglect this crypt from the ashes of the great writer. I Reiterate: precyzuję my alarms and wysuwam feasibility, because the case is urgent i really shame would be, now when we have so many official instances of the culture, not uratowalibyśmy ashes Fredro. About the remains of Fredro forget we can't!”. From this passage it is clear, that delay, the writer is still well preserved after dozens of years since his death – have been placed in a glass coffin for watching them. There is also no doubt, that already, during the period of the SECOND POLISH REPUBLIC, "all conditions" can be achieved despite this crypt to the status opłakanego. (A) the State of things was to soon change suddenly for the worse. After World War II, the Soviet authorities urządziły in the temple food wholesaler, veterinary and pharmacy. In the crypt of Fredrów, among the butwiejących, damaged and scattered in disorder coffins stored food/groceries(sic!). A longtime period like "management" fatally affected the State of the vault and buried human remains in it and contributed substantially to falling into total oblivion fredrowskiego Pantheon.
Restore the memory of Aleksander Fredro
Person, that began a long process of restoring the memory to the world about this site, He was extremely well deserved for the research on the character and the acquis Fredro, Professor. Bogdan Zakrzewski. In 1970 in the course of research in the archives of Lviv, He managed to escape from the discreet care of the Soviet militia and go to Rudek. The Church presented the warehouse manager written in j. Ukrainian letter Rector of a University in Wroclaw, recommending Him to go to the crypts Fredrów in Rudkach and ... received permission to descend to the underworld Temple. The Professor had a pre-war photographs of the funeral komediopisarza, so you do not have any problems with the identification of his remains, immediately after opening the coffin. He was not wearing shoes and Slutsky but features and moustache was perfectly preserved thanks to the zabalsamowaniu of the body. An extraordinary event, which later resulted in equally interesting epilogue, It was the finger incident by Aleksander Fredro. Professor while in the crypt, touched by committing circumstances, przyklęknął with the intent to deny "litany" titles, tracks the writer. Then one of the magazynierów which is near – Judging that the crypt came a member of the family of the writer – decided to give him a memento of the deceased in the form of his thumb. Blessed with a precious reminder of the national, Professor Zakrzewski przemycił it across the border, with the intention of placing it in a place so remarkable relics. His intention, however, was hardly, It was only in 1989 year, When the finger was in a niche by Aleksander Fredro bricked Church. Maurice in Wrocław. The move reportedly reviews the Church purpuratów, that opinion, in any case, it wasn't a souvenir of this measure, which – for example, – the heart of Frederic Chopin.
In 1988 year Polish Government called to live the Commission to issue the second burial by Aleksander Fredro, with Professor Zakrzewskim as Chairman. The effect of actions taken by this body, the Church of Rudkach was again consecrated in 1989 year, immediately and then in September 1990 He held a solemn funeral of Aleksander Fredro, and members of his family. On the day of 8 August 1990 He became a Professor Zakrzewski-with the famous Krakow editor Alexander Święchem, with the help of the workers, they translate the physical remains of Aleksander Fredro and his family to new coffins, then the writer's coffin was placed in a sarcophagus. Before the coffin zalutowaniem, Professor placed on the chest of a writer identification plate plate with his name and the name of the, We found by chance during work in the crypt. The Commission led by Professor Zakrzewski also funded a stone plaque with the inscription: "The pontificate of John Paul II, 29 September 1990 held the ceremony for the burial of Alexander hr. Fredro and members of his family ", which attachments are made just above the entrance to the chapel of Fredrów. On the day of the, during the funeral ceremony, Professor Zakrzewski delivered a speech dedicated to Alexander Fredrze and its significance for Polish culture.
Among those present at the ceremony was Elizabeth Weymanowa de domo Szeptycka-great-granddaughter of the writer. Not without reason, of just such a maiden name of funeral attendees rendered me a marked. Beloved daughter of Aleksander Fredro, Zofia, She is married to Jan Kanty Szeptycki Remigiana with Przyłbic and had seven sons, including Stanisław Szeptycki-known Polish politics and General and Andrzej Szeptycki Metropolitan of Lviv Catholic servants, which merits for Ukrainian Affairs long dream to write. Not all realize the importance of this, the rudeckim Church, in one person, is the responsibility of both the great Polish writer-Polish comedy Prince as well as the grandfather of the Ukrainian, Metropolitan świętojurskiego, whose activities greatly shaped the development of Ukrainian national life in the first half of the 20th century. Fascinating but quite another story.
Author : Artur Ziaja
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